How To Make Seed Starting Pots From Newspaper

This how to post will cover the creation of small pots out of newsprint, perfect for starting seeds. The photo above shows stout seedlings of Cynara scolymus ‘Violet de Provence’, free seeds that came with an issue of the British magazine Gardens Illustrated last year. Since our issues arrive a month late in the United States, it was too late to start these purple flowered artichokes then. We didn’t know that however and planted some outdoors in the ground. They never came up. These seeds were sown on heat mats in the greenhouse on January 17, 2010.

You will need to buy the wooden form to make the pots. Ours came from Thompson And Morgan Seeds online, but they are offered from other vendors and most are the same size and price, around $20. Note: I bought the form, it was not free and I have received no compensation from T&M. I provide no link, either, you might have noticed, but you can find them yourselves, I am sure.

There are instructions printed on the box that the form came in, but we thought them a little vague.

You will need a newpaper, measuring device with centimeters or inches, a pen and scissors. You may use any section of the paper that you wish. Most newspapers are printed with soy based inks, and there are color photos throughout the paper. It’s okay to use those pages with colored inks, she says with optimistic fervor. A table top helps make the job go faster, but you could do it on the floor or any other flat surface. A newspaper from top to bottom was approximately 57 centimeters, the length called for on the instructions on the box. That certainly makes life easier, doesn’t it? To measure the height, we used a seamstress tape measure, the only thing we had that showed centimeters, and found that 8 cm is the same as 3 and a smidge inches. Let’s call it 3 1/16 inches. Make a mark at that height at each edge of the paper then draw your cutting line across. Make all the lines before cutting. I used one section of newspaper, about five sheets folded to make ten layers total. Our small paper came out exactly to three strips and the top piece when unfolded was the same height. This should make thirty-five pots with no waste. Cut across the lines with scissors and you are ready to roll.

Here is where the directions on the box are not clear enough. When you begin to roll the paper on the form, leave a nice space as you begin, or you will not be able to get the paper pot off of the form easily and may tear it. Continue rolling loosely, keeping the paper evenly on the form. After rolling it completely, straighten the edge if necessary, fold the bottom over the end of the form, having the loose edge in the middle of the first fold. Keep the top edge of the roll nearly even to the top of the wooden cylinder, below the handle. There will be about an inch at the bottom that will be folded to secure the pot.

Continue folding the edges over until it looks like this. It will be sort of loose around the wooden form, important so that you can remove the paper pot from the form with ease. The folds at the bottom can be tight, but don’t have to be as tight as you can get them. The next step will take care of that.

Fit the folded bottom over the wooden base. Push down hard and go back and forth with your hand, smooshing the folded paper into the base. After six or seven twists, the bottom of the pot should hold the depression made from the wooden base. Push hard without hurting yourself, for this will be done over and over again. You will get into a rhythm after the first couple of pots and it will go quickly.

The finished product should be able to stand on its own.

Keep your finished pots someplace where they will not get crushed. I use a shoe box and keep them in the greenhouse where they will be used to start seeds. This size of pot fits nicely into the saved four packs that Mouse Creek Nursery uses for their annuals. The plastic packs are perfect for our seed starting endeavors.

The paper pots are filled with moist seed starting mix. The seeds are planted at whatever depth is recommended, a little vermiculite sprinkled on top to prevent damping off and they are placed in a tray on the heat mats with a clear plastic lid. Once germination occurs, the pots can be moved singly to the light stand. Since seeds rarely germinate at exactly the same time, this allows for each pot to be moved without disturbing the others. Seed starting cell packs, usually with many individual cells are not as convenient. Jiffy Pots made from peat are not as conducive for growth as the bagged seed starting mix that is used to fill the paper pots. Purchased peat pots are expensive and do not decompose as quickly as the newspaper pots, if at all. The peat pots also will keep the precious contents from getting adequate water if the pot edge is above ground level when planted outdoors, drying out too quickly. This has been our most successful year ever with the seeds. Of course they still have to make it outside into the ground. The first shot in this group is of gold and orange swiss chard, backed by the Dahlia ‘Bishop’s Children’ that were sown in the fall, in the paper pots. The above is a seedling of lettuce Brune D’Hiver.

We have learned from past mistakes, and will not put the babies outside before ALL danger of frost and cold weather is over, if that is what they need to thrive. Being able to handle each seedling individually will make a world of difference in providing the proper hardening off. The cost of the pots, prorated against the cost of the form makes these the next best thing to free. Above is a mass of Hyssop officinalis, in a flat without the cell pack dividers for better use of the limited space under the grow lights. The artichokes from the first photo of this post are at the end of the row. These paper pots were also used for the winter sowing in milk jugs that wait patiently out of doors for the right temperture to begin growing. They will be planted right into the ground, with the roots secured and unharmed, growing right through the newspaper. Some roots are already showing in the older seedlings inside, so spring, we are ready when you are.

For other How To posts written by Fairegarden, look for How To on the sidebar page listing or click here.


We wish to thank The Financier for helping with this post by snapping the shots of rolling the newspaper into pots. A first time for everything.

This entry was posted in How To, Seeds. Bookmark the permalink.

42 Responses to How To Make Seed Starting Pots From Newspaper

  1. Edith Hope says:

    Dear Frances, This is an exceedingly useful posting and most apposite in these recessionary times. For an initial outlay of around Β£10, you are able to produce pots for seedlings for a lifetime. This has to make sense.

    I am sure that many gardeners will wish to follow your very clear and informative instructions. Thank you for taking the time and trouble for passing on your experience.

    Thanks Edith. I am glad you found the instructions clear, so often those are the opposite, written it seems by someone not interested in making them understandable. The little paper pots are a joy to make and the seedlings seem to love them. Win, win. πŸ™‚

  2. gardeningasylum says:

    This seems like a good way to proceed. I also make pots from toilet and paper towel rolls cut into 1.5 inch lengths.

    Thanks. It sounds like you are a thrifty gardener as well. I used the TP rolls one year to plant carrots, it was a dismal failure, however. I do believe the roots can penetrate the newspaper a little easier than the cardboard, but it is still a good material. Kudos! πŸ™‚

  3. Liisa says:

    Thank you so much for sharing this. I have been eyeing these wooden forms, and think this a marvelous idea. I appreciate your detailed instructions, and sharing your experience. The lighting system I purchased came with large styrofoam packs. It is wonderful not having to transplant everything as they grow, but with newspaper one would not have to worry about disturbing the roots since it will decompose. Also, the smaller pots would make room for many more seedlings! πŸ™‚

    Hi Liisa, thanks. My heat mats came with flats, cells and the plastic lids too. I used them last year but had trouble getting the seedlings out of the cells without disturbing the roots and the surrounding babies. I just took the cell sheet out and now use the flat and lid with the paper pots. I am liking the results of being able to move the pots as each seed germinates from the heat to the lights. It should make for easier planting into the ground too. And you are right, we can squeeze those wet paper pots very close together in the flat. There is never enough room in a greenhouse it seems. πŸ™‚

  4. I have looked at these pot makers for years and always wondered if they realy do work. Once again, very clear instructions and another very good way to put newspapers to use in the garden.

    Thanks Deborah. Me too. I hesitated to spend that much money on the wooden forms, now I am sorry I didn’t get it sooner. The ease of moving the seedlings around is amazing and the germination rate has been very good. πŸ™‚

  5. Joanne says:

    Thanks Francis an interesting post. I don’t often make them these days because I find I have become the dumping ground for all my neighbours surplus pots as sometimes I get some real beauties I don’t like to say no but end up with far more small pots than I could ever use.

    Thanks Joanne. Our surplus pots stack up as well, and we do use the larger ones when giving plants away. Our city now recycles them, thank goodness, so they can be taken away without worry about filling the landfill with plastic. This has really changed our seed starting habits, but the paper pots are working so well, I am hooked on that method now. πŸ™‚

  6. lynn'sgarden says:

    What a great how-to post, Frances! Excellent directions AND photos. Makes me want to dig in the dirt! I’ve learned from experience not to rush into my seed starting ’til after St. Patrick’s Day…but will definitely try out this method. Can’t wait to see those gorgeous artichokes at full glory in your garden! πŸ™‚

    Hi Lynne, thanks, so nice to see you here. Not rushing into the seed starting has always been my problem too. And sowing too many and running out of room before it is warm enough to move them outside. The winter sowing in the milk jugs is being tried for the first time this year, we’ll see how that goes. I do love these paper pots, and making them is fun and satisfying. I don’t know what to expect from the artichokes, I don’t believe our growing season is long enough for chokes to form, but the leafy foliage will be a boon to the little leaf syndrome problem we have. πŸ™‚

  7. Darla says:

    This post is a tab bit late for me as I was just staring at my cell packs of seedlings wondering how am I going to get these out of there without destroying the roots, lol. My husband is an avid newspaper reader so I have plenty of that, what’s not used to smother grass that is. I will be trying this for sure. Your seedlings look wonderfully healthy. Thanks for the tip on vermiculite, could have used this tip a little earlier too. Stop laughing at me.. Oh I have 4 pretty good size Lilium Regale up that you sent with a nice layer of what looks like mold…..hmmm. What should I do? I run the ceiling fan over them several hours a day. Should I put them outside in the shade….I know, I know novice gardeners…:)

    So sorry Darla, but next year you will be ready! The vermiculite really changed my success rate when it was discovered a few years ago, damping off is a terrible problem in the cool greenhouse with it. Hooray for your lilies, but don’t but them outside until all danger of frost is well past. As for the mold, I would scratch the surface up and sprinkle vermiculite on top. It probably is not harmful, but don’t over water, don’t let them stand in water. Good luck! I would never laugh at another gardener, for I was once a beginner too, and still make plenty of mistakes. One can never know it all, but that is not a reason to keep from trying something new, that’s how we learn. πŸ™‚

  8. Lisa at Greenbow says:

    What a handy gizzmo. I can just see the antique collectors looking through your shed many years from now, finding this gadget and wondering what in the world it could be used for. Along these same lines, I have been saving toilet paper rolls for the same use.

    Hi Lisa, thanks. I love the word gizzmo! Antique collectors would have a field day both inside and out at my place, for I have collected some pretty weird stuff over a lifetime. HA I tried the TP rolls for growing carrots with dismal results. I hope you have better luck! πŸ™‚

  9. Gail says:

    Dear Frances,This would have been an excellent task while the weather has been so cold and the garden frozen. I love the gadget and echo what Lisa says. It already looks like a collectible. About yesterday~ I spent the day with Priscilla moving to the country…But today it’s gardening time or at least some cleanup! xoxogail

    Hi Gail, thanks. That is the best news ever about Priscilla, and your narrative explaining the process was brilliant! Do take advantage of the sunshine today, if possible. We are waiting for the frost to burn off, the sweet pea seeds are soaking! πŸ™‚

  10. Sylvia (England) says:

    Frances, I use these paper pots as well but I haven’t started seed sowing yet. Light it my problem as I only have windowsills for my plants. It is the growing on where I run out of room. I will start sowing seeds next month. I have a new heated propagator this year, looking forward to seeing if it makes a difference.

    Best wishes Sylvia (England)

    Hi Sylvia, thanks for visiting. Having the grow light set up makes so much difference, in addition to the heat mats. Even with all the natural light in the greenhouse, the short days of winter are not enough to get the seedlings off to a good start without the supplemental lights. While expensive, the lights really made a difference in my sanity over the winter. Cheaper than recreational shopping or binge chocolate eating. Good luck with your seeds! πŸ™‚

  11. mattisalomaki says:

    That is fantastic. Great job. Matti

    Hi Matti, thanks and welcome. I am glad you enjoyed the pot making story. πŸ™‚

  12. kate says:

    It’s good fun making newspaper pots. I’ve not seen the wooden form before ~ I’ve always used a shampoo bottle to wrap the newspaper around and then smoosh in at the bottom. Great pics!

    Hi Kate, thanks for that tip! What a good idea, and way cheaper than buying this wooden gizmo, as Lisa called it. πŸ™‚

  13. Janet says:

    I have seen this pot making device in catalogs. Glad to see it works so well. I marvel at the number of seedlings you start every year. Good for you.

    Hi Janet, thanks. I looked at this wooden thing for years, always thinking it was too expensive and the process sounded daunting. I am really glad to have it now. As for the number of seeds, well yes, I do go overboard. In the past, so few of these babies have lived well and prospered for one reason or another, usually being put outside too soon because we ran out of room in the greenhouse. This year will be different. This will be the year that turns it around!!! (Ever the optimist.) πŸ™‚

  14. Frances – a great tutorial! We don’t subscribe to any print newspapers, and I don’t think I can roll up my computer edition of the NY Times! πŸ™‚
    We just cleaned out a big downstairs closet after the Musician converted our pharmacy son’s old bedroom to a music room. We installed some big shelves that I think can be fitted with lights for seed starting.
    The Musician rolled his eyes when I made that suggestion! Go figure!

    Hi Cameron, thanks. We love newspapers, and want to support our local one. The financier reads the sports sections, a habit he enjoys after coming home from work to unwind. As for the eye rolling, we simply ignore those kinds of reactions and proceed anyway. πŸ™‚

  15. Frances, This is a great instructional post. I’ve seen these pot-makers for sale, but hadn’t given them much thought. I can tell they’re a great idea, if you’re going to start seedlings. I’ll have to bookmark this page for future reference. πŸ™‚ Thanks!

    Hi Shady, thanks. I’m glad you found it informative. When I started to make the pots, it was a little tricky and the internet offerings did not have clear photos about how to do it. I love writing these how tos, hoping to help someone someday get started on projects they weren’t sure about. πŸ™‚

  16. ssaa4ever says:

    great work
    i like your way
    am willing to try it
    should i but them outside or its fine if i but them in my home?

    Thanks. I am glad you liked this how to post. Depending on your climate, they could be used inside or out doors. Mine are inside in a room that is used as a greenhouse. We also have some outside in plastic milk jugs an mini greenhouses. You just want to make sure they stay moist. Good luck with them. πŸ™‚

  17. Zach says:

    Very cool, I have seen those in catalogs, its nice to see the pots that it makes. I am glad you showed the whole process!

    Thanks Zach. I had seen them in catalogs for years as well, and was always interested but the price put me off. Some people are saying that they use household items as forms and it works fine too.

  18. Hi Frances, It’s neat to see those in action. I use a cheaper alternative, because, well, I’m cheap. I use an empty metal can as the rolling template, and the counter as the thing to push in the bottom edges. I then use a spray bottle to moisten the pot before adding soil, and that flattens out the bottom. The extra moisture is also helpful (esp. in winter sowing) because the newspaper pots tend to dry out faster.

    Thanks for that, Monica. I love the wooden gizmo, but it seems anything round would work. My seed starting mix is always very wet, wetting the paper immediately when they are filled. I will make sure the winter sowing pots stay moist when the time comes to unleash them. I might be asking you for advice when that happens, like how do you know when to take the lids off the milk jugs? At germination?

  19. Bonnie says:

    What a great idea. Thanks!

    Thanks Bonnie, glad you enjoyed it. πŸ™‚

  20. What a wonderful idea and a perfect example of “Reduce, Reuse and Recycle”.

    Thanks Noelle. It does make one feel like we are doing a good thing by using the newspaper. And good for the plants too. πŸ™‚

  21. Catherine says:

    What a great post. I had heard of these paper pots but wasn’t sure how they were made. I’ve tried the peat pots and they’ve never decomposed at all, I can imagine the newspaper does fairly quickly. Great idea for trying them with winter sowing too. The Financier did a fantastic job with the photography πŸ™‚

    Hi Catherine, thanks so much. I agree about those peat pots, and they are everywhere for sale right now in all sizes. I don’t like them, but do like not disturbing the roots. These paper ones should accomplish that well. The financier did do a fine job. πŸ™‚

  22. bloominrs says:

    This is a great tutorial. I didn’t have much luck last year with the tp rolls I used, but I chalk that up to the fact that I was trying to winter sow some penstemons that have exacting requirements. Maybe I’ll have to get one of those pot makers. It looks fun. I have good luck with the peat pellets (indoors anyway), but I learned early on to ignore the instructions and take the netting off when I transplant!

    Thanks Bloomin! I had the same luck as you with the TP rolls and the jiffy peat pots. Taking that netting off is a pain, and you disturb the roots in the process, then are stuck with the nets that do not break down. I think you would like the newspaper pots. Others have suggested using shampoo bottles or metal cans as rolling aids. I have only made them with the purchased wooden form though. Good luck with seed starting! πŸ™‚

  23. Anna says:

    I must confess that I have a similar contraption lurking in a cupboard somewhere. Was given to me as a birthday present. Not being the most practical of people I put it to one side I am ashamed to say. Your clear instructions might inspire me to give it a go. Thank you for the information and kudos to the Financier for his photographic work. My Garden Illustrated artichokes are now looking quite sad after this winter 😦

    Hi Anna, that is exciting that you have this device lurking around! I hope you will try it out, for we are very happy with the way the seedlings are growing in these paper pots. As for the artichokes, as they perennial? I thought they were annuals, or maybe they are not hardy in my zone. I will check that out. The only place I have ever seen artichokes growing was in California, much warmer than where I live. I hope yours makes a recovery. πŸ™‚

  24. Sweet Bay says:

    I like this method. At this time I still have a lot of plastic quart containers that other people have given me that I’ve been using and re-using, but they won’t last forever.

    Hi Sweet Bay, thanks for dropping by. I do use some four inch plastic pots for certain things, but these newspaper pots have worked exceedingly well for the single seedlings, like lettuces.

  25. Yet another reason to pull for the survival of newspapers in print. I feel so smug as I use ours in the garden in many ways…and here’s another one to try. I think I will start with the shampoo bottle technique, but I do love having “gizmos” that are nice to look at.

    Hi Ricki, thanks for visiting. I am going to try the shampoo and other bottles to make some different sized paper pots, thanks to the great comments here. Last year the realization about newspapers as weed suppressors when making new beds was discovered here too. Long live the newspapers! πŸ™‚

  26. Lola says:

    A very informative post Frances. I had seen this gadget & wondered if it actually worked. Now that I know it will I may just have to purchase one.

    Thanks Lola. Or you could go the shampoo bottle route. I haven’t tried it yet myself, but plan to. The wooden gizmo is cute though. πŸ™‚

  27. Lisa says:

    Thanks for such an informative tutorial! I’ve been eyeing those pot makers too, wondering if they really work. BTW, I found one for $14.95 at and (Pinetree)…FYI.

    Thanks Lisa. That is a better price than what I paid. They do really work and the seedlings love them. The form is not really necessary it seems, shampoo bottles or other cylinders have been used by others.

  28. Rose says:

    What a great idea, Frances! I’ve never heard of this form before, but I’m going to look into it. Newspapers are in abundance here, and I’m always trying to find ways to recycle them without hauling them all into town. Over time, I can see that the form will more than pay for itself. Still too early here to start seeds; every year another lesson is learned from mistakes:)

    Hi Rose, thanks. Good for you waiting to start the seeds. That is a problem here as well, although it is more running out of room before it is warm enough to put them outside that gets me every time. The two are related. The newspaper pots take up less room and can be shuffled around under the lights and on the shelves. We are hoping to have great success, or better than before, in the getting them into the ground step. πŸ™‚

  29. Frances, lids are always off the milk jugs from the time you set them outside. Indoor sowers use domes/lids to keep the plants moist by trapping water they add. In winter sowing, you get the moisture from the weather (rain, snow) so the lids have to be off forever. (I’m assuming you mean the cap lid that you would remove to pour the milk. Or do you mean when do you remove the tape and ventilate by pulling back the top half of the jug? That’s when you a) have a seedling and b) you’ve have a high of 50 during the day.)

    Thanks Monica. I did take the lids off from the very beginning of the winter sowing, like you said to do in the book. It is the removing, or opening of the top half of the jug that concerns me. We are having days over 50 here already, finally!!!, as is normal for our winters. We can also have days that do not get above freezing until mid April. I moved the jugs to a shady spot that stays much cooler until the sun gets higher in the sky, frozen even since our nights are below freezing still. I will keep looking for sprouting, hoping it waits until the weather is warmer. The winter sowing is just an experiment this year to see what will work for our southern zone.

  30. commonweeder says:

    What a useful post. Yet another reason for good blogs – clear instructional photos.

    Thanks Pat. I am having fun writing these how to posts, as we do the seasonal chores at this time of year. I can see by the stats that others are viewing them well past the initial posting, very gratifying. πŸ™‚

  31. I have always wanted one of those pot makers, they look so handy.

    My sister makes long narrow rolls of newspaper for her sweet pea seedlings. I might give that a try, since I can’t find the correct seed trays to do that.

    Great post, and super clear instructions.


    Hi Jen, thanks. I am going to try those long narrow pots for the sweet peas as well. They look so cool! πŸ™‚

  32. mothernaturesgarden says:

    Your instructions are excellent. I used clear plastic produce containers from the grocer this year.

    Thanks Donna. I like to use those clear plastics to hold the newpaper pots, it makes them much easier to move about as each seedling germinates. Root disturbance has always been a bugaboo for me. πŸ™‚

  33. easygardener says:

    Now I am looking at my store of plastic pots and feeling quite guilty πŸ™‚
    Your instructions make it look so easy. I agree with you about peat pots – always drying out and rarely rotting down.

    Hi EG, I am sorry you are feeling guilty. Our recycle has recently begun accepting those plastic pots, which really helps give us motivation to get rid of the ugly things. Maybe your recycling station could be persuaded to take them as well, freeing you to use the paper. Those peat pots are worthless, a waste of good peat, IMHO.

  34. I like this.

    You answered my question as I read along, how swiftly they decompose?

    I used the supposed quick to break down ‘peat’ pots last year, I say peat though they maybe coir or similar these days, anyway, point is they’re just not quick enough to rot away. The roots can’t always get out quick enough.

    I think you’re right about coloured ink on newsprint. I happily chuck colour newspaper on the compost heap and don’t have any problems, well not that I’m aware of anyway.

    Thanks Rob. I agree, those peat pots are worthless, IMHO anyway. The paper works one thousand times better, if not more. And about the colored ink, in our area, they stopped using the bad stuff many years ago.

  35. i’ve had one of those gizmo’s for a few years and have used it off and on and the pots work very well.i have just one little addition to your very good instructions.i fold my newspaper in two before wrapping around the form ;makes for a stronger pot with a neater edge.

    Hi BLG and welcome. Thanks for that additional info. I did accidentally use two pieces of paper on one of the pots and wondered if the roots would be able to penetrate as easily.

  36. Sherry says:

    Wonderful “how to” post! I use the paperboard egg cartons for seed starting indoors. I have looked at the newspaper pots and have thought they would be fun to make. You make it look easy.

    Hi Sherry, thanks. Those egg cartons are a good way to recycle as well. We have also used the egg shells, with a hole poked in the bottom with a nail, then crushing the shell to plant the seedling. It worked well, but we do not have nearly enough of them for the number of seedlings we have going. The newspaper pots are nearly an endless supply. They are easy and fun to make. πŸ™‚

  37. I really enjoyed reading this post Frances. Thank you. What a nice project for a cloudy winter day. I’ve ordered myself a Potmaker!

    Hi Jackie, thanks. I hope you enjoy your potmaker as much as I do. It really makes the pots quickly. I tried the shampoo bottle method, and the bottoms are not as tightly compressed. Have fun when it arrives! πŸ™‚

  38. Hi Frances, What a clever post! I love your perfectly molded pots. A great way to recycle paper. Terrific!

    Thanks Carol. Glad you liked seeing this how to. These pots work like magic on the seedlings, roots are sticking out all over the place, and they are so easily moved around from tray to tray to make room for others germinating.

  39. Teriwai says:

    This is really good to know i love the idea of re-using my news paper. This will be the first time i will ever be using these home made pots.
    Good luck to me πŸ™‚ lol

    Hi Teriwai, thanks and welcome. I too wish good luck to you in the making of these pots. It does feel good to use what is already in the house. πŸ™‚

  40. I’ve just read this again. I might have a crack at making them, not sure if I can source the form though, may have to adapt something.

    Hi Rob, thanks for revisiting! I have used shampoo bottles to make larger ones, folding the bottom in carefully. Good luck with them! πŸ™‚

  41. Pingback: The Year Of Food « Fairegarden

  42. Mary Margaret Cairns says:

    I had bought a potmaker at an amish store and throw the box out with directions so my lucky day was when I found your instructions online. Thank you a million times over. Getting ready to make the pots this week and hubby is putting up my grow lights right now. One question- do you need to put your pots into a bigger pot filled with potting soil after the plant gets so big but before time to put in the ground? I am starting annuals for our Herb Society so I would like the plants to be a nice size when we plant them the third week of May in zone 5. Thank you again so much.
    Mary Margaret

    Hi Mary Margaret, thanks for visiting. Good luck with your project. Yes, put the paper pots into larger pots when you can see roots sticking out of the paper or when the seedlings have gotten larger. I hope this helps and best of wishes for your herbs!

Comments are closed.